Mother Tongue Based Multilingual Education Programs in Pakistan.
The aim of mother tongue based MLE programs in Pakistan is to teach reading and writing skills to minority-language students in their own languages, and also develop reading, writing, listening and speaking skills in Urdu and English. The mother tongue is used as a bridge to Urdu and English. Presently, MLE programs are successfully running in the Gawri and Torwali languages in Swat, Palula and Kalasha in Chitral, Gojri in the Kaghan valley, Parkari and Kachchi in the interior Sindh, and Balochi in Liyari, Karachi. Most of these MLE programs teach Urdu as a second and English as a third language. In the MLE schools in Sindh, Sindhi is the second language, Urdu the third language, and English the fourth language. The goal of this study is to report on an initial, exploratory effort to assess the effectiveness of English language learning in these mother tongue based MLE schools in Pakistan, in comparison to English language learning in Urdu and English-medium schools.